Taking its name from the Township of Digby, which had been named in honour of Rear Admiral Robert Digby who dispatched HMS Atlanta to convey loyalists from New York City in the spring of 1783 to Conway, which became known as Digby, Digby County was established in 1837. Previously, from August 17, 1759, when Nova Scotia was first divided into counties, this area had been part of Annapolis County.
24 years later, in 1861, Digby County was divided into two districts: the District of Digby and the District of Clare. In addition to these 2 districts, the county contains the town of Digby and part of the Bear River Indian reserve. Also, there is Digby Neck leading into the Bay of Fundy to Long Island and Brier Island.